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The particles of matter move up and down at right angles to the direction of energy transfer in a transverse wave.

The **velocity** of a wave measures how quickly a wave transfers energy. It is measured in cm/s or m/s and is given the symbol **v**.

The **frequency** of a wave measures how many wavelengths pass a given point each second. It is measured in **numbers per second** or **Hertz** (**Hz**) and has the symbol **f**.

The **period** of a waves is the time taken for one wavelength to pass a given position. It is measured in seconds and is given the symbol **T**.

These equations define the relationship between some of the properties of waves:

velocity = distance ÷ time = wavelength ÷ period

velocity = frequency x wavelength = f λ

Period = 1 ÷ frequency.